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Then for 50 years, 1614–1664, the Monmouth County area came under the influence of the Dutch, but it was not settled until English rule in 1664.

The initial European proprietors of the area purchased the land from the Lenni Lenape leader or Sakamaker.

On April 2, 1664, the English appointed Richard Nicolls to serve as the Deputy Governor of New York and New Jersey.

After the Dutch arrival to the region in the 1620s, the Lenape were successful in restricting Dutch settlement to Pavonia in present-day Jersey City along the Hudson until the 1660s and the Swedish settlement to New Sweden (1655 - The Dutch defeat the Swedes on the Delaware).

The Dutch finally established a garrison at Bergen, allowing settlement of areas within the province of New Netherland.

Within a period of 112 years, 1497–1609, four European explorers claimed this land for their sponsors: John Cabot, 1497, for England; Giovanni de Verrazano, 1524, for France; Estevan Gomez, 1525, for Spain, Henry Hudson, 1609, for Holland.

Since the Lenape people, like all Native Americans, had no immunity to European diseases, when the populations contacted the epidemics, they frequently proved fatal.

Some Lenape starved to death as a result of animal over-harvesting, while others were forced to trade their land for goods such as clothing and food.

They were eventually moved to reservations set up by the US Government.

They were first moved to the only Indian Reservation in New Jersey, the Brotherton Reservation in Burlington County, New Jersey (1758-1802).

This article is about the township in Monmouth County.

For the community within the township see Marlboro, Monmouth County, New Jersey; For other places with the same name, see Marlboro, New Jersey (disambiguation).

The Lenni Lenape Native Americans were the first known organized inhabitants of this area, having settled here about one thousand years ago and forming an agricultural society, occupying small villages that dotted what was to become Marlboro Township.

Several wars, at least 14 separate epidemics (yellow fever, small pox, influenza, encephalitis lethargica, etc.) and disastrous over-harvesting of the animal populations reduced their population to around 4,000 by the year 1700.

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