According to conventional historical belief, Puerto Ricans have mainly Spanish ethnic origins, with some African ancestry, and distant and less significant indigenous ancestry.Cruzado's research revealed surprising results in 2003.It found that, in fact, 61 percent of all Puerto Ricans have Amerindian mitochondrial DNA, 27 percent have African and 12 percent Caucasian.
Trinidad was inhabited by both Carib speaking and Arawak-speaking groups.
New scientific DNA studies have changed some of the traditional beliefs about pre-Columbian indigenous history.
Juan Martinez Cruzado, a geneticist from the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez designed an island-wide DNA survey of Puerto Rico's people.
The history of the Caribbean reveals the significant role the region played in the colonial struggles of the European powers since the 15th century.
In the 20th century the Caribbean was again important during World War II, in the decolonization wave during the post-war period, and in the tension between Communist Cuba and the United States.
Genocide, slavery, immigration and rivalry between world powers have given Caribbean history an impact disproportionate to the size of this small region.
The hunter-gatherer Guanahatabey present in western Cuba at the time of Columbus's arrival may have represented a continuation of their culture or more recent arrivals from southern Florida or the Yucatan.
The islands were then repopulated by successive waves of invaders travelling south to north from initial bases in the Orinoco River valley.
Between 400 and , the Barrancoid followed and replaced them on Trinidad.